In September 2016, when James O’Neill became the Commissioner of the New York City Police Department (NYPD), he faced significant challenges. To begin with, he had to ensure that the agency was positioned to combat the many threats facing New York City, including terrorism, which, as O’Neill said, is something that is “always on [his] mind.” O’Neill was also making a significant personal transition. He had previously served as the Chief of Department, the highest-ranking uniformed officer in NYPD. As O’Neill said, he had thought that that position, which involved supervising 36,000 officers, had kept him “pretty busy”; however, he would now be taking on a new level of scrutiny and pressure as the public face of one of the most prominent law enforcement organizations in the world. Finally, NYPD was in the midst of a large and delicate organizational transformation.